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Sound Design


Sound plays an important, but often understated, role in the theatre. The sound designer’s role is to source and play any sound effects required for the production, as well as setting up and operating any microphones that may be necessary. They should work closely with the director and the rest of the design team to make sure that their design is coherent with the rest of the production. As well as the conceptual design of how they would like the piece to sound, a sound designer is also responsible for the placement, setup and operation of speakers, amplifiers, microphones, mixers, and playback systems to implement their design. On a small production they are likely to do this themselves - most venues have sufficient capacity for you to play sound from a laptop through speakers facing the audience. If the show requires a video relay of the conductor to the performers and/or band, the sound department is also generally responsible for that.

The sound designer will source, record or compose effects, soundscapes, music and atmospheres that can be played back in order to create the desired emotional and dramatic effect in the performance. When designing your sound, think about how you can complement the show itself. For example, if your show is set by the sea, why not have a ‘soundscape’ playing in the background with sounds of the sea to set the atmosphere.

For more complex shows, such as musicals, you may need to amplify your cast and/or a band which requires experience in the mixing and engineering side of sound. It’s not recommended that you try something like this unless you’ve got some experience working with microphones, since radio mics especially can be difficult to get used to, so if you’d like to be involved in a musical try contacting the sound designer of an upcoming musical, who will be more than happy to give you the experience.

A designer of a large production may choose to have an associate sound designer and assistant sound designers. An associate tends to be an experienced designer who can provide an alternate source of experience and ideas for the show’s designer to work with. They understand the designer’s preferences and working methods and are permitted to speak creatively in the absence of the designer (though any large or irreversible decisions should of course be checked!) They should be invited to work through the design process with the designer, attending runs and paper techs, such that they understand the show, can help the designer with tasks and so that the assistant gains experience of what the designer does and can later go on to design shows themselves.

A Mixer (Sound No.1) is normally only found on musicals. They are responsible for mixing the microphones and band during the show to create the sound of the show, which can be a very demanding task depending on the speed and complexity of the show. They must work extremely closely with the designer to create their desired sound, while also typically being responsible for the technical performance and construction of the sound system. For example, the designer would specify a desired position of a speaker for a special effect, but the mixer would then work out how to rig the speaker safely and wire it into the electrical system of the theatre - freeing the designer up to think about the design rather than technical details.



Wireless microphones are often key to providing a balanced sound in a musical. They however require a surprising amount of care and attention to rig onto the cast such that they do not break and stay in place. The Sound No.2 (‘A2’) works closely with the Mixer to ensure that the microphones are rigged securely and consistently before each show, and monitor them during the show for battery and signal level to spot problems. They will also swap microphones between cast members as required during the show to reduce the number of microphones required with a large cast, which can save the production a lot of money. This role is often underappreciated but is critical to the success of a musical sound design - wireless microphones are notoriously finicky and any signal dropouts or mysterious clicks, bangs and pops will quickly be noticed by the audience. This is an excellent role for sound design beginners.

The sound operator (‘op’) is the person who operates the playback software during a performance and presses “Go” on cues at the appropriate moments, either by following a marked up script or by listening to a DSM (Deputy Stage Manager). If something goes wrong during the performance, the op needs to know how to skip back or forward through the cues. This is generally an extremely basic job, which can be a good opportunity for a beginner to experience a backstage environment.


Music licensing

Most venues will already have the required licensing to play recorded music, but you should check this in your tech spec and/or venue contract. Note that musicals will generally be licensed separately under grand rights. The application of PRS (Performing Rights Society) fees is a complex process depending on how much music you wish to use and how it is used in the production, either as incidental scene change music or as an integral and unchangeable part of the sound design. You must consider it early as in some cases individual songs will need to be requested more than 30 days in advance of the production, though sometimes  the form can be filled in afterwards. Usually the fee involved ends up being very small.


Sound op
Music Licensing
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